UNIT 01 - Chemistry

EXPECTATIONS: -- Before we start this unit you should:

1. Understand that atoms are the building blocks of all matter

2. Understand that atoms are tiny and only visible using the most powerful microscopes.

3. Understand that atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

ATOMIC STRUCTURE: At the end of this part of the atoms unit I will be able to:

  1. Sketch the number and location of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  2. Compare and contrast ions, isotopes and neutral atoms
  3. Determine the numbers of protons, neutrans and electrons present in any atom, ion or isotope


PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS: At the end of this part of the atoms unit, I will be able to:

  1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict patterns on the periodic table.

  2. Explain which atoms on the periodic table are most reactive and why.

  3. Sketch, predict and explain how the size of an atom changes as we go back and forth and up and down on the periodic table.

  4. Explain how the positively pulling proton power found in the nucleus of an atom effects that atoms' ionization energy, reactivity, size and electronegativity.



LEARNING GOALS: At the conclusion of this unit, I will be able to:

PART I: Ionic Bonds

  1. Explain how ions and ionic bonds are formed.

for example:

  • sodium atoms lose an electron to become a positive ion (Na+1 which we name sodium ion)

  • chlorine atoms gain an electron to become a negative ion (Cl-1which we name chloride ion)

  • those charged ions are then attracted to each other and form bonds to create the ionic compound sodium chloride.

2) Explain the meaning of a chemical formula for an ionic compound such as MgCl2

  • The charges in an ionic compound MUST balance to zero.

  • Magnesium loses 2 electrons to form an ion with a +2 charge.

  • Chlorine gains an electron to form an ion with a -1 charge.

  • It takes 2 chorlide ions (each of -1 charge) to balance 1 magnesium ion with its' +2 charge

  • Therefore one atom of magnesium is present and 2 atoms of chlorine are present in the ionic compound magnesium chloride.


PART II: Covalent Bonds

  1. Give examples to illustrate that molecules are groups of two or more atoms bonded together (for example: a molecule of carbon dioxide is formed when one carbon atom shares electrons with two oxygen atoms in a covalent bond).

  2. Explain the meaning of a chemical formula for a molecule (for example the molecule carbon tetrachloride: CCl4).


ENDO/EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS: Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.]

[Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include calculating the total bond energy changes during a chemical reaction from the bond energies of reactants and products.]


RATES OF REACTION: Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.]

[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to simple reactions in which there are only two reactants; evidence from temperature, concentration, and rate data; and qualitative relationships between rate and temperature.]



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