LEARNING GOALS --
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
**FORCE, MASS & ACCELERATION:** Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
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**MOMENTUM**: Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.]
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HS-PS2-3: Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.]
GRAVITY: Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation to describe and predict the gravitational forces between objects.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational fields.]
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
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